Accounting Book Topics – You Must Read to Clear Exam with Good Grades

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Introduction to Book Keeping and Accountancy

  1. Book keeping
  2. Process of book keeping
  3. Accountancy
  4. Difference between book keeping and accountancy
  5. Accounting as science and art
  6. Objective of book keeping and accountancy
  7. Advantages of book keeping and accountancy
  8. Basic accounting terminology

Basic Accounting Concepts

  1. Meaning of gaap
  2. Business entity concept
  3. Money measurement concept
  4. Going concern concept
  5. Accounting period concept
  6. Dual aspects concept
  7. Double entry system characteristics advantages disadvantages

Documents and Accounting Equation

  1. Origin of transaction
  2. Source documents or vouchers
  3. Accounting voucher and its types
  4. Accounting equation
  5. Analysis of transactions
  6. Computation classification of transactions

Rules of Debit and Credit Journal

  1. The concept of debit and credit
  2. Definition of debit and credit
  3. Books of original entry
  4. Rules of debit and credit accounting equation approach modern American approach
  5. Traditional rules of debit and credit English approach

Non Cash Transactions Subsidiary Books

  1. Subsidiary books or sub division of journal
  2. Classification cash transactions
  3. Special journal
  4. Journal proper or general journal
  5. Opening and closing journal entries

Ledger Accounts

  1. Balancing of ledger accounts
  2. Classification of ledger accounts
  3. Distinction between journal and ledger
  4. Importance or advantages of ledger accounts
  5. Ledger posting from cash book
  6. Ledger posting from journal entries
  7. Ledger posting from purchases book
  8. Ledger posting from sales book
  9. Meaning of ledger accounts
  10. Summary of rules of posting form subsidiary books
  11. Theoretical questions on ledger accounts

Trial Balance

  1. Meaning of trial balance
  2. Special features of trial balance
  3. Limitations of trial balance
  4. Methods of preparing trial balance
  5. List of important accounts and balances

Final Accounts (without Adjustments)

  1. Balance sheet in final accounts without adjustments
  2. Difference between profit and loss accounts and balance sheet
  3. Features or characteristics balance sheet
  4. Limitations of final accounts or financial statements
  5. Meaning of financial statements or final accounts
  6. Need or importance and purpose of trading account
  7. Need or purpose and importance of profit and loss account
  8. Performa of balance sheet
  9. Performa profit loss account
  10. Performa of trading account
  11. Points to be considered before creating balance sheet
  12. Profit and loss account final accounts without adjustments
  13. Trading account final accounts without adjustments

Final Accounts (with Simple Adjustments)

  1. Adjustments additional information in preparation of final accounts
  2. Depreciation in the value of assets
  3. Appreciation in the value of assets
  4. Outstanding expenses
  5. Prepaid expenses
  6. Accrued or outstanding expenses
  7. Unearned income
  8. Interest on capital
  9. Interest on drawings
  10. Interest and dividend on investment
  11. Interest on loan
  12. Bad debts not in adjustment
  13. Provision for bad and doubtful debt adjustment
  14. Further bad debts adjustment
  15. Provision for bad and doubtful debts given in the trial balance
  16. Provision for discount on debtors
  17. Closing stock
  18. Summarized presentation of adjustments
  19. Theoretical questions final account

Bank Reconciliation Statement and Three Column Cash Book

  1. Meaning of bank reconciliation statements
  2. Need and importance of bank reconciliation statements
  3. Preparation of bank reconciliation statements
  4. Steps for preparation of bank reconciliation statements
  5. Important notes and explanations regarding preparation
  6. Cash book with discount column
  7. Cash book with discount and bank column or three column cash book

Bills of Exchange

  1. Bills of exchange concept of bills of exchange
  2. Promissory note
  3. Accounting treatment of bills of exchange
  4. Endorsement of the bill
  5. Discounting of the bill
  6. Retiring a bill under rebate
  7. Dishonour and noting of the bill
  8. Renewal of the bill
  9. Part payment of the bill

Errors and Their Rectification

  1. Errors affecting or disclosed by trial balance introducing the concept
  2. Errors omission and errors of commission
  3. Errors in the subsidiary books and their rectification
  4. Errors of principle
  5. Treatment of capital or revenue expenditure
  6. Treatment proprietors withdrawal
  7. Errors recording incorrect subsidiary books


  1. Meaning of depreciation
  2. Depreciation features causes objectives factors
  3. Fixed or equal installment or straight line method or depreciation on original cost
  4. Advantages and disadvantages of straight line method
  5. Diminishing or reducing or written down value method
  6. Difference between straight line and diminishing balance method
  7. Depreciation review questions depreciation

Test for large samples n 30

Performance of balance sheet

Finance Help for Students

Finance Book:

5 Must Read Finance Books:

best finance textbooks:

Engineering or Accounting: Which One to Choose?

Today, students are focusing on different subjects that they have interest in to build up the career. Engineering is one such course that can give you opportunity to have a bright career ahead. But, it is not limited to engineering as accountancy students are also seeing a good career prospect which is why they are showing a good interest on the subject.

Each and every course comes up with some advantages. But, you must remember that every engineering degree does not come up with career opportunity. There are few courses available which you can focus on to create a good career. Whereas, accountancy is quite in demand in present time due to evolution of small businesses. There are many entrepreneurs around who are in need of accountant who can manage the financial aspects.

Reason to choose engineering

You will come across with varied reasons that can finally influence you to choose engineering course. Some of them are:

  • Ultimate challenge and creativity:

Engineers get involved in different projects which have the ability to change and improvise the surroundings. Highly innovative structures and modern facilities are offered to society. If you have a strong interest on how things work and have a keen mind of the application of this process, then it is a perfect field of study for you.

  • Adopt different skills for future application:

As an engineer you would surely develop some of the valuable skills that can be of real use in future. Engineers will come up with problem solving skill that gives opportunity to deal with any complex situations. The practical solutions to any problem appear to be highly crucial and can deliver good confidence while you face with any challenges.

  • Ample choices found for engineers:

Today, you will come across with different choices that ranges from electrical to mechanical and civil to software. Each and every branch of engineering come up with some or the other exciting options. They are highly in demand and ensure a road for career development.

But, at the end of the day you need to understand the taste and interest.  This will finally lead you to right path and ultimately you can have a flourishing career. Students having interest on engineering will not be able to focus on accountancy and vice-versa. Without having a good knowledge on any subject, you will not be able to develop your future.

There is a chance of developing logical thinking which helps in understanding feasibility of project. Therefore, an engineer can consider financial and practical aspects of project before proceeding with a plan.

Both the course give you chance to develop the thinking ability and allow in better analysis of situation. The problem solving and critical reasoning gives ability to handle any complex circumstances. It is also possible to implement such skills in real life.

Students showing interest on accounting

If you are planning to choose accounting for further studies, then you need to understand your interest.

  1. Playing with numbers:

You can surely choose accountancy as your subject, if you possess a good amount of interest in numbers. But, still there is a possibility of facing problems in your academic life. So, you can think of choosing accounting assignment help from online homework help websites that can give you knowledge and ways of handling project. Simple or complex you need to handle mathematical calculations with utmost efficiency. This will finally turn you into good students.

  1. Skills to polish:

If you are focused on developing soft skills, then it can be a good course for you. Apart from learning calculations, it is also possible to enhance different skills such as time management and proper planning. These skills can finally help to build up a career and can create a healthy work environment.

  1. Linking up to other career:

It is not essentially you have to build up career as accountant. Through this degree you can surely have other career options around you. It is possible to get into industry with different skills and play role as market researcher. So, don’t lose hope if you have an accounting degree in hand and still do not have to pursue career in this field. You still have other options available.

There are different reasons that might say why accounting course is worthy of studying:

  • It helps in having a solid foundation and gain knowledge on business that helps to run it successfully. There is a complexity in running business in different market scenario which is possible to handle easily through better knowledge.
  • If you do not want to build up your career as accounting professional, still there is an opportunity for developing business skills that can help you in future.
  • A possible career towards becoming Chartered Accountant which is a recognized designation and ensure better opportunities all around the world.

Demand for engineering or accounting

You need to understand that every engineering course does not come with same level of career opportunities. You can possibly think of building up a career as civil engineers due to increase growth of infrastructure and construction industry. Often people wonder, what does a civil engineer knows that others don’t.The answer is quite simple, their ability to design layout and implement the entire project.

Accountants are surely in high demand in current times. An accountant is needed to handle every kind of business. They look after the financial aspect and offer proper suggestion which can be a profitable solution. Accountant is capable of reviewing the situation of business and they perform free tax review which can help in financial analysis. The on time delivery is an important aspect of accountant which is of high importance during tax seasons. Bridgend accountants are also in demand. They give you an insight on internal audit and also help in understanding cash flow.

Electrical engineers, aerospace engineers, industrial engineers are some of the degree that you can think of building. These are known to be the proven course that helps in having career opportunity. The exceptional skills are to come along with time management that helps in better opportunities. You can build your career in different parts of the world. Research, development is few fields that you can focus on after studying.

How You Can Do Well in Mathematics?

How You Can Do Well In Mathematics?

One of the subjects which are important in daily life is Mathematics. It is useful day-to-day daily calculations such as calculating the amount of money you need to pay at a grocery store. Use of simple Mathematical calculations can also prevent you from getting duped by unfair and dishonest people. So, ignoring Mathematics is not an option for any of us. Even the not so well read people know basic calculations. Numbers and counting are among the few things a kid is taught initially when he or she reaches the toddler age.

Now that it is established the subject Mathematics is important, let us know a little more about the subject and its divisions.

Parts of Mathematics

The major branches or parts of Mathematics include:

This is the portion of Mathematics that deals with numbers, integers, real numbers, rational numbers, irrational numbers, and complex numbers. It involves basic mathematical operations like addition, subtraction, division and multiplication. In this branch of Mathematics one learns the basic calculations. When a kid learns 2+2=4 or 5X10=50, it is plain arithmetic. Ratio and Proportion, Profit and Loss, Simple Interest, Integers etc. falls under this category.

Algebra is that part of Mathematics that introduces the concept of variables and constants. Alphabets that are used to store numbers are called variables and the stored numbers are called the constants. Use of Mathematical operations and functions along with variables and constants to solve an equation sums up the theory behind this branch of Mathematics. Let us take an example of a simple sum.

If a+b=6 and a=2, find b.

You can easily say that the answer is 4 if you know the rules of Algebra.

You need to be good in shapes to be good in Geometry as it basically is the Mathematics of shapes. You learn to recognize a triangle or a circle at an early age but are unaware that what you are studying is basically Geometry. As you slowly pass your junior and enter your senior school, you start knowing more details about the calculations regarding all shapes. You get to know how to find the area and perimeter of a circular or a rectangular shaped area slowly and steadily.

You encounter this part of Mathematics when you enter high school. Calculus is a higher form of Mathematics and it involves finding the derivatives and integrals of functions by certain methods. Differentiation and Integration are the two main ways of solving problems in Calculus. Calculus can be further divided into two types, viz. differential calculus and integral calculus.

This branch of Mathematics involves the application of core Mathematics. Calculations like the Probability calculations or the Statistics, sub-part of Applied Mathematics, uses regular Mathematical calculations but cannot be categorized into the other branches of Mathematics. This is because Applied Mathematics is a mix of two or more branches of Mathematics and thus cannot be put into any segregated category.

These are the major categories of Mathematics but there are many other types and branches that involve the use of Mathematics. Subjects like Physics and Chemistry require the use of Mathematical calculations extensively. In higher studies, these subjects amalgamate and help in the research works of scholars and researchers. So, if you start hating Mathematics at the first stage, it would not be an easy path for you to study Science in the future. Before time runs out, try to understand and be comfortable with Mathematics.

Ways to do well in Mathematics:

People who suffer from ‘Math phobia’ would assert and say that Mathematics is a difficult subject while there are others who derive excitement and fun while solving mathematical problems. This disparity only leads to disappointment for the former group of students. But, surprisingly it is not difficult to do well in Mathematics. In fact, there are 6 Easy Steps to Conquer the Fear of Mathematics. Let us see some other tactics to do good in this subject:

  • Zero in on your problem area:

Try to understand which part of Mathematics you find hard. There must be some portions which you find harder than the other easier portions. Concentrate on these parts. It is very important to understand your problem first otherwise you cannot move forward or improve it. Once you understand your problematic area in this subject increase the time you devote for this specific portion(s). Regular and devoted practice is the basic to overcome any Mathematical hurdle.

  • Memorize formulas:

You will come across many formulae that are important for your Mathematics syllabus. Before you proceed to solve exercises of your textbook memorize all the formulae by heart. Memorizing formula is crucial to solving Mathematical problems as it is not possible and is definitely difficult to turn the pages and take a look at the required formula every time. Furthermore, you will not be allowed to cheat or see the printed formulae of your book during your exam. So it is wiser to memorize the formulae and recall them from your memory whenever needed.

  • Follow your class:

During the teenage and adolescent years when one develops a rebellious streak in them, they tend to ignore the class lectures and do not pay attention even when a teacher tries to explain a subject in class. This might seem fun momentarily, but it might also be the reason behind your phobia of Mathematics. Listening intently to class lectures one can understand and learn many techniques that will not be written in textbooks.

  • Set targets:

Try to set a target of doing, say 10 sums, in a specific period of time. Use a timer or a stopwatch if required. With each passing day, shorten the time and increase the number of sums. This will create a competitive streak in you and will help in time management during your Mathematics exams. You can also set targets of finishing one exercise each day.

Know about the Top Five Popular Degrees in Accounts for your Future Need

Students of accounts have a golden opportunity to make their career in the different areas. If you are one of the students who love accounts and want to grab a particular degree in accounts, then it is very necessary for you to know about the popular degrees that can easily give you a right solution of your knowledge.

Students of accounts sometimes need a support while preparing for an examination and Online Accounts Exam Help is perfect for them. After you select a degree, you can easily know about the different related topics.

Five popular degrees related to accounting can be categorized as follows-

1.    Accounting

It is completely supportive and the aim of those who is hundred percent sure that accounting is hos first choice and thus can easily go through any of the degrees as B.Acc, BAcy or B.Acc.Sci. These all are bachelor’s degree. The range varies and thus it depends on the student that whether he is an associate or doctorate. Thus, job also varies as record keeping.

2.    Auditing

This one is also related to the main subject accounts. This is a specialized degree in accounting and it is offered at the graduation level. Now, if you are interested to know about the job career then financial information for auditing process, document collect, responsibilities and ethics, organization evidence and you can also take part in some other degrees for enhancement of program through online. This depends on the interest of a student as whether he is going to select any particular degree or much more than that.

3.    Finance

Though finance is not separating from accounts, but it is a special field that comes under accounts and the student can learn about that field in depth. So, it is always said that if you are interesting in money management, then this one is the best for you. So, you need knowing that if you select this particular part of accounts, then you will be completely perfect in the field of stock investing, bank, management in money and more. You can easily get help through Accounts Online Exam Help for your convenience.

4.    Business

Business and accounts are not far from each other. But, as finance is the part of accounts and clear views in some particular fields, in the same way accounts can help in business a lot. But, if a student gets certification in business, then he must go through a huge knowledge about management, finance and marketing. If you really want an exact knowledge of business, then Accounts Online Exam Help would be profitable for you.

5.    Taxation

This is very much perfect for those who want to know the part of accounting in the field of degree of taxation. In the study of taxation, the students need to know about the law of tax, tax accounting, and tax procedure and tax researches. The degree related to taxation will be more profitable if you can acquire master degree. For attorneys and consultants it is completely perfect.

Just think once that do you really want to entail in an Accounting Career? Know the steps to become an accountant and 10 Questions You Must Answer Before You Go for a Career in Accountancy

How to Utilize Online Business Statistics Assignment Help to the Most

Now we live in an era where there is nothing that is not available online; well almost nothing (chuckles). Let it be shopping anything to booking tickets for trains, flights, movies etc., from ordering food to be delivered right at your doorstep to finding match for your life partner!

Process of learning and education has also taken a step with this advancement of technology. Nowadays, there are applications that are available on smart phones built on standard operation systems like android, iPhone or windows are making lives easier like never before. You will find user-friendly applications meant for your study. Certainly the world is going globalized.

Online business statistics assignment help is also something that is at least now you should not be surprised with at least.

There are various sources that are available

  • Make use of blogs or writings of experts where there are real experiences shared. Now business statistics deals with real collection, analysis and interpretation of data using which a decision is made for the company. For example, if the company administrative officer is willing to recruit more candidates owing to the work load, then there should be deep analysis of how to handle the work flow, expenses incurred and profit. Keeping all points in mind the necessary decision is made. So, try to read experiences from varied people.
  • Make use of online companies. This means the use of companies who have a team of dedicated individuals working for the benefits of students by either answering their queries at any time of the day or taking up complete assignment orders where they do the entire assignments for them within the stipulated time. This is definitely great news for students.
  • Giving online tests from different sources is a great online business statistics homework help. You will find websites, where there are problem sums designed like real life problems where you have to make use of your data interpretation capabilities, critical thinking abilities and use of logic. The more you practice these sums the better you get in what you do.

Whatever you do, just stay motivated always. Remember that there is no substitute to positive thinking and energy. Business statistics is greatly used in all sectors like public or private or any sector related to business management. How to be a good Business Management Advisor/Analyst is something many of you would wonder. So, to start with practically you should be a good planner for sure who has enough knowledge to make proper and healthy use of data for profitable purposes for an organization.

Online Business statistics homework help made opportunities to every common people to access inspiring success stories from successful businessman. How with correct analysis, effort, support and performance these reputed organizations came in to so much power. Also technology has made it available to us to take help from experts in the field and ask them about doubts and fears that you have that might have been inhibiting you in case.

5 Steps to Remember for Making Linear Programming Easier

Linear programming is observed to have raised a good deal of questions amongst the student’s community. Linear programming which is also called linear optimization is a method employed to determine the perfect or close to perfect (i.e., best) outcome that will yield the maximum benefit where the requirements in every case were represented through linear relations of mathematical models. You need to optimize solutions obtained from a linear function which is prone to inequality. So, it is definitely not an easy task to be performed.

Let us see the linear program problems that are expressed in the following canonical forms such as:

Maximize c^Tx
Subject to Ax<=b
And x>=0

Where x represents the vector of the variables that is to be determined, c and B are both coefficients values of whose are known, A is a known matrix and finally ^T represents the transpose matrix.

A lot of questions are observed to have taken place in the minds of learners. Let us take a look at

The FAQs and their answers

  • Inadequacy in handling of decision variables.

The best way to handle this problem is by writing precise definitions of your decision variables that are provided as numbers. You should take the assumptions like “x = number of cars produced in the previous month” or “y = number of employees who worked for ABC company last year” and so on. Once your precise definitions are ready, next the best thing to do is read the constraints like plain English sentences. This way will give you better understanding and help.

  • Take proper effort to blending.

Always remember that good linear programming assignment help comes from proper blending of ingredients. Remember that at when different input materials are used requires good concentration for making proper decision.

  • A great linear programming homework help is when you have a process that has quite a many number of outputs, the best solution here is to make the “use” of that process mentioned in the problem to be made as the decision variable.
  • The great thing to remember for always in linear programming homework help is that only the final total cost or revenues that t are required and final numbers of profit or loss are factors that the solver is worried about. You should be concerned more than solving to allocating values to variables.
  • Now there are variables in linear programming where values are code numbers. Pay proper attention to distinguish them. Always remember that variables whose values are code numbers. Because there are many a times when you get confused to assigning.

So, it is evidently seen that with correct effort and sufficient concentration linear programming could be made easy.

Similar to what we do in linear programming is what SPSS or Statistical Package for the Social Sciences is found now. You can find quite some Get to know what SPSS software is! Find out here for proper learning of the process. Remember, whatever you learn; do it completely and fully for yourself so that you can do well in it.

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30 Crazy Fun Facts of Physics


Physics is a branch of science which studies motion of matter as it travels through space and time. Force and energy are factors which have impact on the motion of matter; these above mentioned topics are considered as a division of physics. The boundaries of physics are unclear and not rigid; therefore, biology, mathematics and chemistry need to be studied along with physics.

Numerous other subjects linked to this branch of natural science are required to be studied alongside physics. Loads of theoretical breakthroughs have been attained in the course of the study of physics. This has led to enhancement in the expertise surrounding human beings. Physics requires analysis of the natural world and assists in understanding the method through which nature functions and operates. Gravity, electromagnetism and various other topics of this subject are the study of forces created and governed by laws of nature.

Here are some fun crazy facts of physics:-
1. Weight that is gravitational force always decreases by the distance squared as anyone moves away from earth.

2. Inertia and mass are both same.

3. Where zero velocity and constant velocity means that the force of net is zero than acceleration will also be zero.

4. Mass is different from weight that is the reason why weight is equal to mass multiply by acceleration.

5. Vectors are velocity, momentum, displacement and forces.

6. While scalar quantities are speed, time, energy and distance.

7. The slope that is there in the graph of velocity and time is said to be as acceleration.

8. Even the unbalance force creates balances and produces acceleration actions is known to be as velocity.

9. Opposite in the direction of the resultant vector and opposite in the force of equilibrium force is equal.

10. All of the collision system has momentum conserved.

11. To show how large the vector quantity is magnitude is used to show it.

12. The sum of kinetic and potential energy is said to be as mechanical energy.

13. As height increases the gravitational potential energy also does increases.

14. If the velocity changes than the kinetic energy also does changes.

15. The total rate of change of the energy is the total unit of the power.

16. The best of conductors are made of short and fat of all cold wires.

17. The protons and the electrons have the same and equal charge amounts.

18. The total resistance of any kind of circuit is decreased with the help of adding a parallel in the resistors.

19. Every resistor in the given series does have an equal current.

20. All the given resistors has equal amount of voltage.

21. By the use of positive ions, electrons and negative ions the ionized gases carry out electric current.

22. With the help of compass needle you can see the direction of the magnetic field.

23. Webers is used to define magnetic flux.

24. In a compass the left hand signifies negative charges while the right hand defines positive charges.

25. The only thing that is mechanical as well as longitudinal is the waves of sound.

26. The blue colored light has more energy. The shorter is the wavelength than the higher will always be the frequency.

27. As the wave frequency increases the energy it has also increases but the wavelength that it has then tends to decrease.

28. The photoelectric effect studies the effect of light and its behaviour of a particle that is the photon.

29. Energy is determined by the light wave frequency.

30. Nuclear forces are short but very strong.

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